# Configure Alarms

Since Alarmd instantiates alarms from events, defining alarms in Horizon entails defining an additional XML element of an event indicating a problem or resolution in the Network. This additional element is the "alarm-data" element.

 Any Event that is marked as "donotpersist" in the logmsg element’s "dest" attribute, will not be processed as an alarm.
alarm-data Schema Definition (XSD)
``````<element name="alarm-data">
<annotation>
<documentation>This element is used for converting events into alarms.</documentation>
</annotation>
<complexType>
<sequence>
<element ref="this:update-field" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" />
</sequence>
<attribute name="reduction-key" type="string" use="required" />
<attribute name="alarm-type" use="required" >
<simpleType>
<restriction base="int">
<minInclusive value="1"/>
</restriction>
</simpleType>
</attribute>
<attribute name="clear-key" type="string" use="optional" />
<attribute name="auto-clean" type="boolean" use="optional" default="false" />
<attribute name="x733-alarm-type" type="this:x733-alarm-type" use="optional" />
<attribute name="x733-probable-cause" type="int" use="optional" />
</complexType>
</element>

<element name="update-field">
<complexType>
<attribute name="field-name" type="string" use="required" />
<attribute name="update-on-reduction" type="boolean" use="optional" default="true" />
<attribute name="value-expression" type="string" use="optional" default="" />
</complexType>
</element>

<simpleType name="x733-alarm-type">
<restriction base="string" >
<pattern value="CommunicationsAlarm|ProcessingErrorAlarm|EnvironmentalAlarm|QualityOfServiceAlarm|EquipmentAlarm|IntegrityViolation|SecurityViolation|TimeDomainViolation|OperationalViolation|PhysicalViolation" />
</restriction>
</simpleType>``````

NOTE See also: anatomy of an event

The reduction-key

The critical attribute when defining the alarm-data of an event, is the reduction-key. This attribute can contain literal strings as well as references to properties (fields and parameters) of the event. The purpose of the reduction-key is to uniquely identify the signature of a problem and, as such, is used to reduce (de-duplicate) events so that only one problem is instantiated. Most commonly, the event’s identifier (UEI) is used as the left most (least significant) portion of the reduction-key, followed by other properties of the event from least to most significant and, traditionally, separated with the literal ':'.

Example 1. Multi-part reduction-key
``````<event>
<uei>uei.opennms.org/nodes/nodeDown</uei>
...
<alarm-data reduction-key="%uei%:%dpname%:%nodeid%" alarm-type="1" auto-clean="false"/>
</event>``````
Example 2. Least Significant reduction-key Attribute
 Decreasing the significance of the reduction-key is a way to aggregate, for example, all nodes down in to a single alarm. However, there are caveats:
``````<event>
<uei>uei.opennms.org/nodes/nodeDown</uei>
<alarm-data reduction-key="%uei%" alarm-type="1"/>
</event>``````

With this reduction-key, a single alarm would be instantiated for all nodes that were determined by the Poller to be down. There would be a single alarm with the count representing the number of nodes down. However, the UEI uei.opennms.org/nodes/nodeUp would not be a good ''pair wise'' reduction-key for resolving this alarm as it would take only a single ''node up'' to clear all nodes down tracked with this single alarm configuration.

The alarm-type attribute

The second most critical attribute is the alarm-type. There are currently three types of alarms: problem (1), resolution (2), and notification (3). The alarm-type attribute helps Alarmd with pair-wise resolution…​ the matching of resolution events to problem events.

The clear-key attribute

This attribute is used in the pair-wise correlation feature of Alarmd. When configuring a resolution alarm, set this attribute to match the reduction-key of a the corresponding problem alarm.

The auto-clean attribute

This attribute instructs Alarmd to only retain the most recent event reduced into an alarm. For alarms that are super chatty, this is a way to reduce the size of the most recent events in the database.

 Do not use this feature with alarms that have pair-wise correlation (matching problems with resolutions).
The update-field element

Use this element to override Alarmd’s default behavior for which some fields are updated during reduction. The Alarm fields that are currently allowed to be controlled this way are: .Bulleted * distpoller * ipaddr * mouseover * operinstruct * severity * descr * acktime * ackuser

 If an alarm transitions from an alarm-type 2 back to alarm-type 1 the Severity will be set to the most recent event’s value.
Reduction (de-duplication) of Alarms

Alarmd is designed to reduce multiple occurrences of an alarm into a single alarm.

Pairwise Correlation

Alarmd is also intrinsically designed to automatically match resolving events with an existing alarm. Alarms with matching resolutions with problems (Ups with Downs), should be indicated with the alarm-type attribute. .Bulleted * alarm-type="1" (problem alarm) * alarm-type="2" (resolving alarm) * alarm-type="3" (notification alarm…​ alarm with no resolution such as SNMP Authentication Failures)

 Instantiate new Alarms for existing cleared problem Alarmd includes a global property setting that controls the behavior of alarm reduction of currently cleared alarms.

Create a properties file called alarmd.properties in the $OPENNMS_HOME/etc/opennms.properties.d/ folder and add the following property set to true: ``````###### Alarmd Properties ###### # # Enable this property to force Alarmd to create new alarms when an problem re-occurs and the # existing Alarm is in a "Cleared" state. # # Default: false #org.opennms.alarmd.newIfClearedAlarmExists = false org.opennms.alarmd.newIfClearedAlarmExists = true`````` Now, with this property set, when a repeat incident occurs and the current state of the Alarm tracking the problem is "Cleared", instead of restating the current Alarm to it’s default severity and incrementing the counter, a new instance of the Alarm will be created. .New node down Alarm with existing cleared Alarm What happens is that Alarmd will alter the existing alarm’s reductionKey to be unique. Thus preventing it from ever again being reused for a reoccurring problem in the Network (the literal ":ID:" and the alarm ID is appended to the reductionKey). Altered reductionKey  Re-enable legacy dual Alarm state behavior You can set a global property setting to re-enable the legacy (pre-H 23) dual alarm behavior. Create a properties file called alarmd.properties in the$OPENNMS_HOME/etc/opennms.properties.d/ folder and add the following property set to true:

``````###### Alarmd Properties ######
# Enable this property to have the traditional dual alarm handling of alarms state
# for alarm pairwise correlation.
# Default: false
#org.opennms.alarmd.legacyAlarmState = false
org.opennms.alarmd.legacyAlarmState = true``````
 Setting legacyAlarmState will nullify newIfClearedAlarmExists